As was noted in the last post, the cancellation of debt is an important image in the New Testament for explaining and understanding the concept of forgiveness. In this post we will look at two texts that portray forgiveness through this very helpful and accessible image. These texts will not be new to you, but try to look at them with fresh eyes. As you read take note of the debt/payment language.Matthew 18:21-35: A Parable of a God who Obliterates Debt and Calls us to the Same Then Peter came up and said to him, “Lord, how often will my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? As many as seven times?” Jesus said to him, “I do not say to you seven times, but seventy times seven. Therefore the kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who wished to settle accounts with his servants. When he began to settle, one was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents. And since he could not pay, his master ordered him to be sold, with his wife and children and all that he had, and payment to be made. So the servant fell on his knees, imploring him, ‘Have patience with me, and I will pay you everything.’ And out of pity for him, the master of that servant released him and forgave him the debt. But when that same servant went out, he found one of his fellow servants who owed him a hundred denarii, and seizing him, he began to choke him, saying, ‘Pay what you owe.’ So his fellow servant fell down and pleaded with him, ‘Have patience with me, and I will pay you.’ He refused and went and put him in prison until he should pay the debt. When his fellow servants saw what had taken place, they were greatly distressed, and they went and reported to their master all that had taken place. Then his master summoned him and said to him, ‘You wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt because you pleaded with me. And should not you have had mercy on your fellow servant, as I had mercy on you?’ And in anger his master delivered him to the jailers, until he should pay all his debt. So also my heavenly Father will do to every one of you, if you do not forgive your brother from your heart.”
This is one of the key New Testament passages that addresses the issue of forgiveness. Matthew anchors his discussion in financial imagery. There are three things I would like to draw out from this text.
First, in God’s economy debt/sin is an inescapable reality. Unlike debt here and now, theological debt is not dissolved when we die. The parable is clear that where there is debt there will be payment. This parable opens our eyes to the exorbitant bill our sin has earned us. It is a payment beyond us.
The second thing this parable draws our attention to is the mercy of the Sovereign. The King of all the earth stands ready to release us from an outrageous debt. This is shocking interaction for a monarch. He gains nothing from releasing this man from his debt—he simply loses. This is mercy.
The third and final observation is that the releasing work of this King is to shape our interaction with those who owe us. This parable brilliantly shows us how ridiculous we are in our unwillingness to release our debtors. Servants of this King are required to imitate his benevolence. Failure to do so excludes one from belonging to this Lord.Luke 11:2-4: The Lord’s Prayer And he said to them, “When you pray, say: “Father, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Give us each day our daily bread, and forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone who is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation.”
Luke’s version of the Lord’s prayer ties together the themes of debt, sin, and forgiveness. This daily petition places forgiveness as a central concern in the life of every believer. We stand before God as debtors. The petition for release should come across our lips as often as our request for daily bread. The ground or basis of this request for forgiveness is very interesting and important. He grounds the request in the fact that our debtors have been released from their outstanding balance. In other words, “God, interact with me, a sinner, the way I have interacted with those who have sinned against me.” This interplay of being forgiven and extending forgiveness is tightly connected throughout the New Testament.