The Nicene Creed

The Nicene creed was written around A.D. 325. It was adopted in the face of the Arian controversy. Arius, a Libyan presbyter in Alexandria, had declared that although the Son was divine, he was a created being and therefore not equal with the Father. He made the statement “there was when he was not.” This belief made Jesus less than the Father, which posed challenges to the doctrine of the Trinity and the doctrine of salvation. The Nicene creed was a response to this challenge and a correction to his error.

We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth,
and all that is seen and unseen.

We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ,
the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father,
God from God, Light from Light,
true God from true God,
begotten, not made, one in Being with the Father.
Through him all things were made.
For us men and for our salvation
he came down from heaven:
by the power of the Holy Spirit
he was born of the Virgin Mary,
and became man.
For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate;
he suffered, died, and was buried.
On the third day he rose again
in fulfillment of the Scriptures;
he ascended into heaven
and is seated at the right hand of the Father.
He will come again in glory
to judge the living and the dead,
and His kingdom will have no end.

We believe in the Holy Spirit,
the Lord, the giver of life,
who proceeds from the Father and the Son.
With the Father and the Son
he is worshiped and glorified.
He has spoken through the Prophets.

We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church.
We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins.
We look for the resurrection of the dead,
and the life of the world to come. Amen.

The Nicene creed builds on and elaborates the Apostle’s Creed. Paramount in this creed is the explanation of the person of Christ and his relation to the father. The creed also elaborates on the saving work of the Son, the person and role of the Spirit, and things pertaining to the church. I will highlight a few of these key areas.

  • The Son of God is unique in his dependence on the Father– He is “eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God.” This creedal statement has created a lot of discussion and debate throughout church history. The doctrine here described has been called “eternal generation.” A.A. Hodge attempts to put this mystery into words. Eternal generation is “an eternal personal act of the Father wherein, by necessity of nature, not by choice of will, He generates the person (not the essence) of the Son, by communicating to Him the whole indivisible substance of the Godhead, without division, alienation, or change, so that the Son is the express image of His Father’s person, and eternally continues, not from the Father, but in the Father, and the Father in the Son.”
  • The Son of God is unique in his equality with the Father– The creed clarifies and balances the previous statement when it says that the Son was “begotten, not made, one in Being with the Father.” The doctrine of “eternal generation” does not call into question the absolute equality of the Father and Son. They share the identical nature and essence. The Son knows no beginning, he has always been. He has always shared everything with the Father.
  • The Son of God is unique in his role as Creator– The creed specifies the Son’s key role in creation: “Through him all things were made.” This is a new and important addition to the Apostle’s creed that further establishes the deity of the Son.
  • The Son of God in his unique role as Redeemer– The creed frames the saving work of Christ in a fresh way. “For us men and for our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man.” The humility of the incarnation and the empowering of the Holy Spirit are center stage in this description of Christ’s mighty work.
  • The Holy Spirit is unique in his role as Life-Giver– The creed identifies the Spirit as the “Lord,” equal to the Father and Son. As the Lord, he is the “giver of life.” It is the Spirit’s vocation to breathe life and sustain it. We see this in both creation and new creation.
  • The Holy Spirit is unique in his relationship to the Father and Son– The Spirit “proceeds from the Father and the Son.” This is another phrase that has produced a lot of discussion, debate and significant conflict. The doctrine here has been called the “procession of the Holy Spirit.” A.A. Hodge explains the teaching. Procession refers to “the relation which the third person sustains to the first and second, wherein by an eternal and necessary, i.e., not voluntary, act of the Father and the Son, their whole identical divine essence, without alienation, division, or change, is communicated to the Holy Spirit.”
  • The Holy Spirit is a proper object of our worship– The creed recognizes that worship necessarily follows the affirmation of deity. The Spirit is worthy of worship alongside the Father and Son.“With the Father and the Son he is worshiped and glorified.”
  • The Holy Spirit inspired the prophets– The creed affirms the Spirit’s role in the speech of the prophets and by extension the inspiration of Scripture. “He has spoken through the Prophets.”
  • The link between baptism and forgiveness– This creed, unlike any previous, addresses baptism. It also draws a link between forgiveness and baptism. “We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins.”

Richard Bauckham on Forgiveness

Here is another section of an interesting article I read by New Testament Scholar, Richard Bauckham. He touches on a very rich aspect of forgiveness—the pain endured to make it possible. In this short reflection, Bauckham touches on the suffering of God that marked his forgiving grace.

When some brutal murder is in the news, reporters always press the victim’s relatives to say how they feel about the murderers. I always find it an unpleasant spectacle. All too often the reporters seem to be trying to extract expressions of hatred and bitterness. Quite often we hear the grieving relatives say that they could never forgive the people who did that.

Of course, we are not surprised that people in such circumstances should feel like that. We easily understand how, being so badly hurt, they should feel it impossible to forgive. We can share their sense that justice demands retribution, not forgiveness.

But then it is all the more striking that sometimes a person in such a situation says that they feel no bitterness towards the murderers. These forgiving people are no less feeling. We can see that they loved their murdered relatives no less than the others who say they cannot forgive did. They grieve no less. In fact, one gets the impression that they have suffered more, felt the hurt more deeply, let it reach further into their hearts. They have absorbed the pain so deeply that it doesn’t come pouring back out of them as bitterness and hatred. They know there’s been quite enough pain and they don’t want to pass any more on, even to those who deserve it.

Sometimes these people come across as characteristically forgiving people, people whom, if you knew them, you would expect to react like this. But that doesn’t mean that forgiving is painless. Quite the opposite. Forgiveness is only painless when the crime is trivial or hasn’t affected us very much. And to forgive what people do to those we love is more painful and more demanding than to forgive what they do to ourselves.

All this may help us to understand a little what it means for God to forgive us. One of the things Jesus showed us is that it is God’s nature to forgive. God is characteristically forgiving. In a sense, we can expect God to forgive. As people sometimes say, “Of course, God will forgive: that’s his business.” Yes, but this doesn’t mean that forgiveness is painless for God. Quite the opposite.

All the evil we do hurts God. It spoils and damages the world God has made and the people God loves and cherishes. So it hurts God deeply. And God absorbs all that pain so deeply that he forgives.

This is one way of understanding how it is Jesus’ death on the cross that brings God’s forgiveness to us. God in Jesus’ suffering bore all the pain of forgiving us. He didn’t let the hurt bounce back against those who crucified Jesus – all of us. He took it into his heart.

This happened in the very public event of Jesus’ crucifixion, an event which has become one of the best known events of history. That’s because we need to see God’sforgiveness. We need to see it in order to really believe it. And we need to see it so that it can affect us and change us.

I don’t know how murderers react when they see their victims’ relatives on the television news. Maybe sometimes it may make them regret what they’ve done. If so, I’m quite sure that it would not be the unforgiving but the forgiving reactions which would have this effect.

When we see God’s forgiveness of our evil – when we view the cross in this way – that changes us. God doesn’t wait till we’ve changed our ways and become better people before forgiving us. Rather it is God’s forgiveness that brings us to repentance and new life.

Gospel Irony in the Joseph Narrative

As we saw in the last post, the story of Joseph is an incredible narrative of forgiveness. This being the case, we can learn some helpful things from this story as we think about the gospel.  I want to focus on the theme of irony and its link to the work of Christ.

The sinful act of the brothers was the saving act of God. By selling their brother into slavery they were securing their rescue. This is how Joseph saw it. This is how God saw it. The story is dripping with irony. Sin was the instrument of salvation. Here is God’s saving equation in the story of Joseph (Gen 50:20).

One event: Joseph is sold into slavery.
Two intentions: Human evil and divine good.
One result: Salvation for the sinful brothers.

 Joseph absorbed in himself the pain of the wrong done to him and extended grace and forgiveness. He recognized that their sin toward him was God’s chosen means to preserve their lives.

This gospel irony is ripe in the crucifixion narratives. God is saving sinners through their sinful actions. The nails pounded into his hands were necessary for the forgiveness of the man holding the hammer.

There was never a more wretched act than the murder of God’s Son. God came to us and our response was to wipe him off the face of his own earth. The cross reveals the true nature of our sin. We would rather destroy God than exist with him. The biblical assertion that we are “enemies of God” is not hyperbole.

Yet, and this is mind boggling grace, the assault of humanity on their Creator is the occasion of their salvation. Here is God’s saving equation in the life of Christ (Acts 2:23).

One event: Jesus is crucified on a cross.
Two intentions: Human evil and divine good.
One result: Salvation for the sinners.

 At the cross, the Son of God takes into himself the vengeance of God against sin. He does not destroy his attackers, he rescues them. He takes our sin to the grave. And do you know what is on his mind when he is raised the third day? Bringing grace to the people that crucified him.

His first order of business was to get his disciples organized to go forth and preach the good news. And their first mission was to herald the gospel to Jews in Jerusalem who were responsible for his death! He was in haste to forgive his enemies. He was eager to wash the hands that were covered with his blood. I don’t understand God’s math, but I am so thankful he operates that way.

The Sovereignty of God: A Remedy for Bitterness?

I spent some time studying and writing on the story of Joseph this month. One of my research assignments was to read the narrative with an eye to the theme of bitterness and forgiveness. I was encouraged by what I learned and a bit surprised as well. You know the story. Here is a thematic rundown of his life.

Joseph was favored by his father, hated by his brothers, and sold by his own flesh and blood. He was wrongly accused for immorality, unjustly imprisoned for integrity, and left to rot in a prison cell. He was forgotten by the cupbearer, remembered by God, and exalted by Pharaoh. He gave food to the hungry, grace to his offenders, and honor to God. He was proud in his early years, humble in his middle years, and stately in his older years.

Joseph had every reason to be a bitter individual. Can you imagine being sold by your own family and then forced into a life of slavery? What about being falsely accused of a crime and then imprisoned for around 13 years at the prime of your life? It is hard to grasp the trauma and pain that Joseph experienced.

In the story, Joseph is brought face to face with his brothers. Amazingly, he gives them grace and forgives them for what they did. It was not easy, the text seems to point to the conflict raging within Joseph. He held a position of authority that would have enabled him to exact vengeance on his brothers. He refuses revenge. Instead, he pardons and absorbs the pain. Forgiveness always requires that someone absorb the pain of the wrong.

What enabled Joseph to give grace? How could he after so much suffering? Throughout the story, Joseph points to his source of strength multiple times. This is where the surprise comes. Joseph’s forgiveness was rooted in and motivated by the the sovereignty of God. What a strange place to draw this type of strength. Wouldn’t God’s sovereignty actually make Joseph more bitter? After all, he was ultimately responsible for Joseph’s suffering.

Joseph didn’t see it that way. He makes some incredible statements in this story about his faith in God’s comprehensive reign. Here are two sections of the story that capture Joseph’s astonishing perspective.

So Joseph said to his brothers, “Come near to me, please.” And they came near. And he said, “I am your brother, Joseph, whom you sold into Egypt. And now do not be distressed or angry with yourselves because you sold me here, for God sent me before you to preserve life. For the famine has been in the land these two years, and there are yet five years in which there will be neither plowing nor harvest. And God sent me before you to preserve for you a remnant on earth, and to keep alive for you many survivors. So it was not you who sent me here, but God. He has made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house and ruler over all the land of Egypt (Genesis 45:4-8).

Joseph’s grace toward his brothers came flowing out of the conviction that God put him in Egypt. Three times he calls God the sender. He views his brothers wicked plan as the means through which God worked out his plan. Notice how the people who wronged him fade away in light of his belief in God’s control. His beef was ultimately with God. I would guess that there were many late night wrestling matches with God while in prison that brought him to this place of calm trust.

After Jacob dies the brothers are fearful that Joseph is going to lash out on them. They approach Joseph and get on their knees to beg for mercy. Joseph weeps at their actions. Then he makes this statement.

But Joseph said to them, “Do not fear, for am I in the place of God? As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good, to bring it about that many people should be kept alive, as they are today. So do not fear; I will provide for you and your little ones.” Thus he comforted them and spoke kindly to them (Genesis 50:19-21).

Again Joseph turns to his faith in God’s sovereignty. He knew his place and he let God have his. He did not attempt to sit in the Judge’s seat. He did not attempt to transgress his creaturely boundaries. He knew his place and he accepted it. He also believed that all the horrible things that happened to him were orchestrated by a God of good intentions. He even grasped that all he went through was for the benefit of the very people that had wronged him so terribly. Joseph waged war on his bitterness and his weapon was God’s sovereignty.

Divine Forgiveness: The Trinitarian Shape of Liberating Grace

This is the last post in a long series of meditations on the theme of forgiveness. It seemed fitting to conclude with a look at the Trinitarian shape that divine forgiveness inevitably takes. It is inevitable due to the fact that when we speak of God extending forgiveness we are talking about Father, Son, and Spirit pardoning sin. When you look at forgiveness in the New Testament through this lens some rich insights emerge.

The Father

God the Father is the benevolent King who cancels our debts  (Matt 18:21-35). He is often designated as the subject of forgiveness (Eph 4:32, Col 2:14, 3:13, 1 Jn 1:9). He is the one in heaven to whom  we direct our prayers for pardon (Mk 11:25, Lk 11:4). The Father is specified as the one who refuses to hold our sin against us and instead buries it out of sight. (Rom 4:7-8, Heb 10:17). We learn that forgiveness flows from the riches of his grace and is accomplished for his name sake (Eph 1:7-8, 1 Jn 2:12).
 The Son

God the Son proves his divine identity through his authority to forgive sins (Mark 2:1-10, Matt 9:1-7, Lk 5:18-26, Acts 13:36-40). His mission served to both reveal and conceal the forgiveness of sin (Lk 1:77, Mk 4:12). Like his father, Jesus releases people from their awful debts  (Lk 7:41-49). The unique role of the Son is that he accomplishes forgiveness through his blood (Matt 26:27-29). Even while breathing his last breath upon the cross the Son is speaking forgiveness (Lk 23:34). The Father’s invitation to a new relationship marked by liberating grace is contingent upon, indeed created by the death and resurrection of his Son (Matt 26:27-29, Acts 5:30-32, 13:36-40).  The New Testament is adamant that forgiveness is a reality exclusively in Christ (Eph 1:7-8, 4:32, Col 1:13-14).
The Holy Spirit

The Holy Spirit’s indwelling presence is tied directly to the forgiveness of sin (Acts 2:38-39). The Spirit takes the new covenant blessing of forgiveness (Matt 26:27-29) and presses it into our conscience. The Spirit empowers the proclamation of the forgiveness of sin (Lk 4:18-19). The Spirit also directs the church and guides them into intelligent forgiveness (Jn 20:22-23). He is also the sole object the one sin that was considered beyond forgiveness (Matt 12:31-32, Lk 12:10), which was essentially to equate the Holy Spirit with an unclean demonic presence (Mk 3:28-30).
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit

The work of God always consists of unity and diversity. We can discern the unique traces of each of  the individual persons in the Trinity in the work of forgiveness and yet we can never separate them. The grace of pardon is the work of the one true God. There are two forgiveness texts that make explicit mention of the three persons of the Trinity.
John 20:22-23
“Jesus said to them again, ‘Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me,even so I am sending you.’ And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you withhold forgiveness from any, it is withheld.'”
The mission of the Trinity was forgiveness  for the world. The Father sent the Son who accomplished this saving work by the Spirit. John tells us that this same pattern shapes the mission of the church. Sent by Jesus and empowered by the Spirit, the church is invested with the authority to declare forgiveness to the world and in the community of faith. The text is quite clear that the Spirit empowers the forgiveness that is modeled after the sacrificial love of the Father and Son. Forgiveness in the world is meant to mirror the divine forgiveness of the Godhead.
Ephesians 4:29-5:2
“Let no corrupting talk come out of your mouths, but only such as is good for building up, as fits the occasion, that it may give grace to those who hear. And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, along with all malice. Be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, as God in Christ forgave you. Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children. And walk in love, as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God.” 
The cross provides the contours for properly thinking about forgiveness. The grace of pardoning someone else is to be an act of imitation. We are to view the work of God and mimic that as we relate to those who have wronged us. Just as the Triune God has forgiven us so we are to forgive.  Divine forgiveness includes the united and specific work of each of the persons of the Trinity: the sending work of the Father, the sacrificial work of the Son, and the serving work of the Spirit. 
From where we stand the call of forgiveness is a call to sacrifice and death. The work of pardon is always preceded by death. For us, we must die to our bitterness, wrath, and revenge. We must drown the old man and all his desires to withhold grace from the offender. This requires trust in the Father, power from the Spirit, and the pattern of Christ. It also requires the forgiveness of God that we are trying to be conduits of to others. In our attempts to forgive we need forgiveness.
We can be confident and assured that we are in good hands. God is no stranger to the work of forgiveness. He authored this work and practices it with amazing skill and passion. He will apply that forgiveness to us and enable us to do so with others. He is committed to do this for those that belong to him.

The Ground of Forgiveness

Why forgive? Why does God forgive? Why should we forgive? The “why” question drives us down to the ground level of forgiveness. What are the biblical grounds for forgiveness? Here are two New Testament texts that provide a helpful entry point into this discussion.

For His Sake
“I am writing to you, little children, because your sins are forgiven for his name’s sake” (1 Jn 2:12). God forgives us for his own sake. This is not a new thought. It is as old as the book of Ezekiel. At the peak of Israel’s rebellion God unveiled his gracious plan and promise. But look closely at his motivation.

“But I had concern for my holy name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations to which they came. ‘Therefore say to the house of Israel, Thus says the Lord God: It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for the sake of my holy name, which you have profaned among the nations to which you came.  And I will vindicate the holiness of my great name, which has been profaned among the nations, and which you have profaned among them. And the nations will know that I am the Lord, declares the Lord God, when through you I vindicate my holiness before their eyes. I will take you from the nations and gather you from all the countries and bring you into your own land. I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you shall be clean from all your uncleannesses, and from all your idols I will cleanse you'” (Ez 36:21-26).

The entire new covenant was motivated by God’s concern for his holy name and his desire to vindicate it. He even goes as far to say, “It is not for your sake.” Forgiveness, cleansing, a new heart, and the Holy Spirit are all gifts of this new promise (Ez 36:25-27). These are all given us for his name sake. God’s concern for his name is foundational to our forgiveness. This is rock solid ground. Our forgiveness is secure and certain because his commitment to his holy person is immutable. If God’s name undergirds our good then we are well situated.

For Your Sake
“Anyone whom you forgive, I also forgive. Indeed, what I have forgiven, if I have forgiven anything, has been for your sake in the presence of Christ, so that we would not be outwitted by Satan; for we are not ignorant of his designs”  (2 Cor 2:5-11).

This passage is in the context of church discipline. One of the members of the Corinthian congregation has been removed from the fold for immorality. Paul is calling on the church to observe his repentant posture and  welcome him back into the community. He tells them to follow his example and forgive the man. He then states that he forgave him for their sake so that they would not be deceived by the evil one. Forgiveness  here is for the benefit of  all human parties. It is for the sake of the forgiven one and the forgiving one.  This perspective nicely balances the one above. It is my view that divine forgiveness is concerned about all three parties. Forgiveness is for the sake of God, the sake of the offender, and the sake of the offended.

Once More Bonhoeffer

This is the last of three posts that touch on Bonhoeffer’s thoughts about forgiveness and confession. Hope you enjoy the conclusion.

Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Confession and Communion (Life Together: The Classic Exploration of Faith in Community, 118-122)


To whom shall we make confession? According to Jesus’ promise, every christian brother can hear the confession of another. But will he understand? May he not be so far above us in his christian life that he would only turn away from us with no understanding of our personal sins?
Anybody who lives beneath the cross and who has discerned in the cross of Jesus the utter wickedness of all men and of his own heart will find there is no sin that can ever be alien to him. Anybody who has once been horrified by the dreadfulness of his own sin that nailed Jesus to the cross will no longer be horrified by even the rankest sins of a brother. Looking at the cross of Jesus, he knows the human heart. He knows how utterly lost it is in sin and weakness, how it goes astray in the ways of sin, and he also knows that it is accepted in grace and mercy. Only the brother under the cross can hear a confession.
It is not experience of life but experience of the cross that makes one a worthy hearer of confessions. The most experienced psychologist or observer of human nature knows infinitely less of the human heart than the simplest christian who lives beneath the cross of Jesus. The greatest psychological insight, ability and experience cannot grasp this one thing: what sin is. Worldly wisdom knows what distress and weakness and failure are, but it does not know the godlessness of men. And so it also does not know that man is destroyed only be his sin and can be healed only by forgiveness. Only the christian knows this. In the presence of a psychiatrist I can only be a sick man; in the presence of a christian brother I can dare to be a sinner. The psychiatrist must first search my heart and yet he never plumbs its ultimate depth. The christian brother knows when i come to him: here is a sinner like myself, a godless myself who wants to confess and yearns for God’s forgiveness. The psychiatrist views me as if there were no God. The brother views me as I am before the judging and merciful God in the cross of Jesus Christ. It is not lack of psychological knowledge but lack of love for the crucified Jesus Christ that makes us so poor and inefficient in brotherly confession.
In daily, earnest living with the cross of Christ the christian loses the spirit of human censoriousness on the one hand and weak indulgence on the other,and he receives the spirit of divine severity and divine love. The death of the sinner before God and life that comes out of that death through grace become for him a daily reality. So he loves the brothers with the merciful love of God that leads through the death of the sinner to the life of the child of God. Who can hear our confession? He who himself lives beneath the cross. Wherever the message concerning the crucified is a vital, living thing, there brotherly confession will also avail.

There are two dangers that a christian community which practices confession must guard against. The first concerns the one who hears confessions. It is not a good thing for one person to be the confessor for all the others. All too easily this one person will be overburdened; thus confession will become for him an empty routine, and this will give rise to the disastrous misuse of the confessional for the exercise of spiritual domination of souls. In order that he may not succumb to this sinister danger of the confessional every person should refrain from listening to confession who does not himself practice it. Only the person who has so humbled himself can hear a brother’s confession without harm.
The second danger concerns the confessant. For the salvation of his soul let him guard against ever making a pious work of his confession. If he does so, it will become the final, most abominable, vicious and impure prostitution of the heart; his act becomes an idle, lustful babbling. Confession as a pious work is an invention of the devil. It is only God’s offer of grace, help and forgiveness that could make us dare to enter the abyss of confession. We can confess solely for the sake of the promise of absolution. Confession as a routine duty is spiritual death; confession in reliance upon the promise is life. The forgiveness of sins is the sole ground and goal of confession.

Though it is true that confession is an act in the name of Christ that is complete in itself and is exercised in the fellowship as frequently as there is desire for it, it serves the christian community especially as a preparation for the common reception of the holy communion. Reconciled to God and men, christians desire to receive the body and blood of Jesus Christ. It is the command of Jesus that none should come to the altar with a heart that is unreconciled to his brother. If this command of Jesus applies to every service of worship, indeed, to every prayer we utter, then it most certainly applies to the reception of the Lord’s supper.
The day before the Lord’s supper is administered will find the brethren of a christian fellowship together and each will beg the forgiveness of the others for the wrongs committed. Nobody who avoids this approach to his brother can go rightly prepared to the table of the Lord. All anger, strife, envy, evil gossip and unbrotherly conduct must have been settled and finished if the brethren wish to receive the grace of God together in the sacrament. But to beg a brother’s pardon is still not confession, and only the latter is subject to the express command of Jesus.
But preparation for the Lord’s supper will also awaken in the individual the desire to be completely certain that the particular sins which disturb and torment him and are known only to God are forgiven. It is this desire that the offer of brotherly confession and absolution fulfills. Where there is deep anxiety and trouble over one’s own sins, where the certainty of forgiveness is sought, there comes the invitation in the name of Jesus to come to brotherly confession. What brought upon Jesus the accusation of blasphemy, namely, that he forgave sinners, is what now takes place in the christian brotherhood in the power of the presence of Jesus Christ. One forgives the other all his sins in the name of the triune God. And there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over the sinner who repents.
Hence the time of preparation for the Lord’s supper will be filled with brotherly admonition and encouragement, with prayers, with fear, and with joy. The day of the Lord’s supper is an occasion of joy for the christian community. Reconciled in their hearts with God and the brethren, the congregation receives the gift of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, and, receiving that, it receives forgiveness, new life and salvation. It is given new fellowship with God and men. The fellowship of the Lord’s supper is the superlative fulfillment of christian fellowship. As the members of the congregation are united in body and blood at the table of the Lord so will they be together in eternity. Here the community has reached its goal. Here joy in Christ and His community is complete. The life of christians together under the word has reached its perfection in the sacrament.